Check Orbis for location. Horton; foreword by Martin Bell. Denver, Colo. London : Penguin Books, Darby, R. Seton-Watson, Phyllis Auty, R. Laffan and Stephen Clissold; edited by Stephen Clissold. Cambridge, Cambridge U. Nottingham, Eng. Yugoslavia was expelled from the communist bloc but Tito did not fall from power, as many had expected. He survived, and began to chart an independent course for the nation he ruled.
ISBN 13: 9780415185950
Over the next 40 years Yugoslavia changed beyond recognition. It developed its own brand of socialism, and a society far more open than that of its communist neighbours. For them, and for many communists around the world, Yugoslavia seemed to be a paradise on earth. At home the federation appeared to have solved the bitter national questions of the past, living standards were high and, unlike in other communist countries, citizens were free to travel to the west, either to work or to take holidays.
Tito's Yugoslavia also gained enormous prestige as a founder of the non-aligned movement, which aimed to find a place in world politics for countries that did not want to stand foursquare behind either of the two superpowers. Despite all this, and although there was much substance to Tito's Yugoslavia, much was illusion too. The economy was built on the shaky foundations of massive western loans. Even liberal communism had its limits, as did the very nature of the federation.
Stirrings of nationalist dissent in Croatia and Kosovo were crushed.
Yugoslavia: A History of its Demise - Viktor Meier - e-kirja() | Adlibris kirjakauppa
The federation worked because in reality the voice of only one man counted - that of Tito himself. They had been prepared for his demise with the slogan 'After Tito - Tito'. But there was no new Tito. Without him the state began to unravel, as the governments of the republics began to exercise the powers that were due to them under the constitution.
Dissent began to grow.
Serbs complained of persecution at the hands of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. Croats and Slovenes resented the fact that money earned from tourists in their republics went to subsidise poorer parts of Yugoslavia, such as Kosovo. Albanians there demonstrated for their own republic, and even for secession and union with Albania.
Managing these strains and crises was hard enough, but by the late s some people began to sense that communism itself was in question. And if it was, what was to replace it? For Slobodan Milosevic, an up-and-coming politician in Serbia, the answer was nationalism. Seizing on the delicate issue of Kosovo, Milosevic came to supreme power. And so, Yugoslavia began to crumble. In Milosevic abolished Kosovo's autonomy.
Croats and Slovenes feared that they were next in line. In this way a spiral of competitive and mutually fearful nationalisms began to destroy the country. Politicians fanned the embers of all the old divisions - Serbs versus Croats, Orthodox Christians versus Catholics versus Muslims, and so on. Milosevic clearly wanted to dominate all of the old Yugoslavia, but when he realised that he could not, he switched to another option, that of a Greater Serbia.
History had scattered the Serbs especially, well outside the borders of Serbia. Milosevic argued that the federation meant that nations could secede from it, but not republics. So, he said, Slovenia - with no indigenous minorities - and Croatia could leave Yugoslavia if they wished - but then Croatia could not take its Serb areas with it. The stage was set for war. Croatia is recovering from war, and its territory is intact, although most of its Serbs have fled or been driven out. Bosnia is divided into two, a shattered land still struggling to overcome the legacy of the war. Macedonia has been riven by ethnic conflict - but spared all-out war - between ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians.
Hundreds of thousands of ethnic Albanians returned to Kosovo after the war there, but then , Serbs and other non-Albanians were forced to flee. A lonely toy bear on an empty shop shelf on Christmas Eve in first captured the attention of Michael Bond, who kindly shared Paddington with the world. What makes Biblio different? Facebook Instagram Twitter.
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